Tag: How to incorporate business in Massachusetts

June 9, 2014   Posted by: Margarita Smirnova


At one point, sooner or later, you, as a business owner or business principal will consider offering your services on a Groupon like or an on line deal sites to promote your business and show potential customers your service.   Forbes’ article Are Daily Deal Sites Like Groupon Still Worth It? points out the wariness of the consumer.  In the article, a writer didn’t use her coupon.  She stated that customers became disillusioned by the deals and burnt from experiences.  She ended her article with a list of great advice for the buyers.  The list is great to connect with customers and figure how to make your business last.  The list below will take it a little further and list issues that businesses may deal with when working with companies that providing on line deals.  Keep in mind that the list is not exhaustive and not all companies are the same.

1.     Deals are contractual agreements.  When dealing with a corporation that offers an on line deal you will be provided with an already prepared contractual agreement that contains multiple clauses.  One of the most commonly used clauses is expiration date.  Each contract varies.  In 2012, Groupon, Inc. paid $ 8.5 million and settled a class-action lawsuit, which alleged illegal expiration dates when customers didn’t use their vouchers.  See, In re Groupon Inc. Marketing and Sales Practices Litigation, 11-MD-2238, U.S. District Court, Southern District of California. The result affected businesses that now must accept monies customers paid even after the deal, sans the discount.

When facing with on line deal like contract, this is the time to review every clause very carefully.  It is important to understand the company’s motive, which is to sell.  This means what is said is not always what is in writing.  One Boston magazine offered an on line deal to a business where the salesperson verbally offered a deal-type scenario that consisted the company would provide the deal on their website and keep 100% of proceeds from the deal while the business would provide a service to the customers who would buy the deal in exchange for the publication.  When they sent the contract to the business, it was shocking to see that no deal-type scenario was included anywhere in the contract.  In fact, the business would be solely responsible for the publication.

2.     Cancel the contract clause.  Deal-type companies retain the right to cancel the contract with the business at any time without warning or explanation.  That means whatever efforts you made to prepare your business to deal will go to waste.  They also can change a day and a time of the without being liable to you.  The contract can limit the business’s right to cancel which renders the clause illegal when one sided.

3.     Another big one is condition of approval clause.  If the business isn’t careful and signs this clause, the company can get the right to strip you of your right to condition for approval, which I think, is atrocious.  You want to see your final version of advertisement before it goes out in print or on line.

4.     Watch out for your own property rights.  One company wanted to retain rights to own and sell to third parties of businesses’ pictures or images and trademark perpetually.  This means that not only they can use your images that you’ve spent time, money and energy to obtain and belong to you, but also to sell them to whoever they please forever.

5.     Customer dissatisfaction.  All on line deal like companies contain limitation clauses in their contracts.   They also will make sure to be indemnified from further liability and the responsibility will fall almost entirely on the business.  It is important to be aware what type of liability the business will absorb.

Groupon like companies retained attorneys to draft contracts for them.  There is nothing wrong if you get help from one.

Written by Margarita Smirnova, Esq.

If you have a specific question relating to your business or any other legal questions, please contact Margarita

Call: (617)398-7482
E-mail: margarita.smirnova@gmail.com
This post is for informational and educational use only and does not create attorney-client relationship.
no comments posted in: Business Law   |   Commercial Law   |   Litigation
July 15, 2013   Posted by: Margarita Smirnova


Dancing is beautiful.  Dancing takes us in a different world full of glamor, feelings, fashion, and a holiday.  People go to learn dancing for various reasons and take different dance classes.  While there are different types of dances, it is important to keep in mind that running a dance studio business is providing service where dance instructors give dance instruction to their students.

From legal point of view, similar to many businesses, a dance studio owner should think of protecting studio’s assets.  Some of the most important assets are music and video equipment, a music collection, instruction materials, teachers and studio’s name.   From my personal experience as a professional Ballroom and Latin dancer, the name and its reputation are probably one the most valuable assets.  Generally, the name is earned through dancing community by competing, teaching, and judging and is very respected for years to come.  If done right, they can be protected.

Some of the things to keep in mind when running a dance studio.  First, to run a successful dance studio, the owner has to consider incorporating the studio as business to limit liability and bring structure for the business to run smoothly.

Each state has different rules and regulations governing incorporation process.  For example, to form a Corporation, New York, under the Section 301 of the Business Corporation Law,  requires a special taxation for shares that the corporation is authorized to issue which must be paid at the time of formation of the corporation.  To form LLP, New York, under Section 121-201 of the New York State Revised Limited Partnership Act, requires the filing of the certificate of limited partnership, a limited partnership (LP) plus publication within 120 days.  While Massachusetts doesn’t require the above requirements, the M.G.L. Chapter 156D controls all corporations in Massachusetts, which means that a corporation in Massachusetts is still required to submit its annual report with the appropriate fee.  There are cheaper ways to incorporate in other states.  Dance studio owner should consider the location prior incorporation where s/he wants to conduct the business prior incorporating.

Second, the provisions of the lease and its renewal are important to protect the studio from losing its location.  From my personal experience, many real estate developers/landlords do not think of dancers as business savvy people.  Dancers are considered to be artsy.  Often, verbal promises are not included in integrated written agreements.  This can make it difficult to run a profitable studio smoothly.  Also, moving studio’s location a lot may not be beneficial and should be kept to the minimum.

Third, is insurance.  Insurance is here to protect our property from many types of damage; environmental and/or human made.  Also, insurance should cover clients’ possible injuries to minimize costly litigation.  There are waivers available but they may not protect your studio 100%.  In some places, waivers are not valid or partially valid.  In New York, the waivers are valid for instructional purposes only and if drafted properly.  That means that your studio may still be liable for injuries that occur on the premises.  In Massachusetts, “the issue of waiver is for the fact finder.  When the facts are undisputed, the waiver is a question of law.”  See, Linda Coal & Supply Co. v. Tasa Coal Co., 416 Pa. 97, 101 (1964).  Also, it is an affirmative defense.  See, Sharon v. City of Newton, 437 Mass. 99 (2002).  Under Mass. Gen. Laws, Ch. 93A protects from unfair and deceptive business practices.  “A statutory right or remedy may be waived when the waiver would not frustrate the public policies of the statute and the court “ordinarily would not effectuate a consumer’s waiver of rights under c. 93A”.  See, Canal Electric Co. v. Westinghouse Electric Corp. 406 Mass. 369 (1990).

Fourth, handling employees is just as crucial.  There is an employee’s contract, immigration that may require sponsorship, human conflict, termination, and a non-compete agreement issues.

Fifth, sometimes there is an occasional encroaching on dance business by other dance studios that can bring a lot of frustration and litigation.  A dance studio owner, can address these issues timely and avoid further losses down the road.

Sixth, as of late, Internet and media took a whole different spin on how the studio appears on-line.  Domain name, hosting, visibility/ranking and copyright of videos along with music and its combination came to play an important role in dance business industry.


Written by Margarita Smirnova, Esq.

If you have a specific question relating to your business, please contact Margarita

Call: (617)875-8663

E-mail: margarita.smirnova@gmail.com


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